Common Air or Swamp Air – Ácorus cálamus L. (from the Greek akoros – name. Plant with a fragrant root and kalamos – reed). A highly odorous herbaceous perennial from the Aroid family – Araceae.
The rhizome is thick, creeping, slightly flattened, with numerous thin subordinate roots.
The xiphoid leaves are collected in bundles at the ends of the branches of the rhizome.
A leafless stalk carries a cob of small greenish-yellow flowers, to which is attached a long green covering sheet (cover). In the CIS, the fruits do not ripen; reproduction is only vegetative.
Air marsh is widespread in the middle and southern strip of the European part; in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East; in a number of countries of Central and Western Europe, Asia Minor, the Balkans, China, Japan, North America. It is found along the banks of rivers, lakes, ponds, on swampy meadows, on the outskirts of swamps. In a number of countries it is cultivated and easily runs wild.
As medicinal raw materials, rhizomes of calamus Swamp – Rhizomata Calami (Rhizomata Acori calami) are used. Raw materials are procured from the end of summer throughout the fall or spring. It is dried after drying in well-ventilated rooms, in attics or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C.
Rhizomes contain up to 5% of essential oil, which contains mono- and sesquiterpenoids: α-pinene, (+) – camphin, (+) – camphor, borneol, β-elemene, α-calamen, acoron, as well as phenolic compounds, for example azaron and others. The main component of the essential oil of rhizomes of American origin is 2,6-diepisiobunon.
In addition to essential oil, rhizomes contain glycoside acorin, terpenoids, aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and their derivatives, etc.
The chemical composition in different regions can vary significantly.
Rhizomes are official raw materials included in the I-XI edition of domestic pharmacopeias. They are used in the form of a decoction as an aromatic bitterness that increases appetite and improves digestion, they are part of various collections, a collection for obtaining bitter tinctures and a collection for prescription M. N. Zdrenko, as part of the complex preparations “Vikair” and “Vikalin”, used to treat peptic ulcer and gastritis.
Essential oil is a component for the treatment and prevention of gallstone and kidney stone disease.
Rhizomes of calamus swamp are widely used in various traditional medicine systems and scientific medicine. Included in the pharmacopoeias of many countries of the world, including the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BTF). Popular medicine of traditional medicine. The plant is included in the arsenal of medicines for homeopathy.