Aloe vera, or Aloe vera (Latin: Alóe véra) is a succulent herbaceous plant; species of the genus Aloe (Aloe) subfamily Asphodeloidae (Asphodeloideae). Widely used in medicine and cosmetics. In terms of chemical composition and medical use, this species of aloe is close to Aloe arborescens (Aloe arborescens).
The natural habitat of this aloe is unclear, as the species is widely cultivated throughout the world. This species has developed in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt), as well as in Sudan, on the Canary Islands, in Cape Verde, on the island of Madeira.
The plant is found in the wild in the Canary Islands.
Aloe can exist when other plants wither and die. In extreme situations, this plant closes the pores, retaining moisture inside the leaf.
- mucus and other polysaccharides,
- phenolic compounds
- bitterness enzymes
- hormone-like compounds
- a small amount of essential oil.
In addition to trivial polysaccharides, there are mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins consisting of different sugars, including acetylated manose (its antiviral effect is being actively studied), there are ascorbic acid, B vitamins, folic acid, carotenes, choline, K, Ca, Mg, Zn , Cu.
From the succulent leaves of Aloe get the so-called Sabur, which is dried to dry Aloe juice in the form of brittle shapeless pieces of black-brown color, with a faint smell, very bitter taste.
All types of Aloe contain C-glycosides and resins. The main component is barbaloin, which is a 10-glucopyranosyl aloe-emodin-anthron, the content of which can vary widely depending on the time of year. Free aloe emodin and chrysophanol may be present. In addition, up to 20% of resinous substances with a laxative effect are contained. The latter are represented by the C-glucoside derivative of the chromon (aloezin A) or derivatives of 6-phenylpyran-2-one (aloeinin A and B).
Sabur is an official drug included in the pharmacopeias of several European countries. Its main use as a laxative (cleansing) agent.
Aloe vera is used in medicine and the perfume industry. It is actively used in folk medicine as a tool for the treatment and prevention of many diseases.