Azadirachta (lat. Azadirachta) – a genus of dicotyledonous flowering plants, included in the family Meliaceae (Meliaceae). The genus unites evergreen trees covered with simple pubescence.
The leaves are complex, paired cirrus.
The flowers are mostly bisexual, there are also only stamens. Calyx and corolla five-lobed. Separate petals overlapping each other. Ovary with three nests, each with two ovules. Stamens in the amount of 8-10, fused into a cylindrical stamen tube. Anthers are smooth.
A fruit is a drupe containing one to two seeds. Seed is ovoid, pointed.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 28 or 30.
Indian Azadirahta (Margosa, Nimes) – Azadiráchta índica, Azadiráchta Juss. (from Persian. azaddirakt – a noble flower). A tree 12-18 m high with a spreading crown from the Melian family – Meliaceae.
Leaves thrice pinnate-complex 25-80 cm long.
The flowers are lilac, in the hands, with a honey smell.
The fruits are medium-sized, roundish, yellow in color.
India is considered the birthplace of Indian Azadirahta, the plant can be found there almost everywhere. From India and Burma, the tree spread to Africa, the Middle East, South America and Australia. It is widely cultivated as a park tree in subtropical and tropical countries and Central Asia.
In medicine, fruits and seeds, bark, leaves, flowers and roots are used.
Seeds contain 40-60% fatty oil, as well as butyric oil and traces of valerianic acid and 0.1% margosspicrin (C2 3H2 4O2).
Some bitter limonoids (nortriterpenoids), as well as nimbin, deacetylnimbine, nimbasterol and about 0.4% sulfur derivatives, were found in the oil. It has an unpleasant odor and a bitter taste.
The leaves contain sterols, limonoids, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids.
In fruits – also alkaloids.
The bark contains alkaloid margosin.
Oil in a number of traditional Asian medicines and Western Europe is used as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antibacterial, laxative and hypoglycemic agent.
Bark and roots are used as antipyretic and anthelmintic. Fruits, bark and leaves have insecticidal, antimalarial, antimicrobial and contraceptive effects.
The plant is used in homeopathy.