Clerodendrum serratum (Latin: Clerodéndrum serratum) or Bharangi – deciduous shrubs or small trees, sometimes lianas; genus of plants of the subfamily Zhivuchkovye (Ajugoideae) of the family Lamiaceae (Lamiaceae).

In the natural environment, it is found in Asia, Africa and Latin America, mainly in the tropical zone.

Clerodendrum is a genus of evergreen or deciduous plants with branched shoots up to 4 m long. Vines prevail among life forms, but trees and shrubs are also found.

The stems are covered with smooth olive-green or reddish-brown skin. On them opposite are petiole simple leaves of dark green or emerald color. The heart-shaped, oval or ovoid foliage with whole or fine-toothed edges grows in length by 12-20 cm. Depressions along the central and lateral veins are clearly visible on the surface.

On the tops of the shoots and in the leaf sinuses are corymbose or paniculate inflorescences, consisting of small, but very beautiful flowers. They grow on a long peduncle and resemble amazing bouquets. The bell-shaped cup is divided into 5 parts. Its diameter reaches 25 mm. Then follows a finer corolla of a contrasting hue, and a bunch of long (up to 3 cm) thin stamens peeps out from its center.

Flowering continues from mid spring to early fall. Bracts usually have a lighter or pure white color, and in the color of the petals acquires a pink, lilac or scarlet shade. The flowering of clerodendrum is accompanied by a delicate pleasant aroma. It also comes from the leaves. Moreover, each type of plant has its own unique smell. Corollas fade much earlier than bracts.

After pollination, oblong fleshy fruits of an orange tint appear. Their length reaches 1 cm. Inside the only seed is hidden.

Clerodendrum serratum is used to treat various diseases due to the presence of phytochemical components in it.

Chemical composition

Sterolglucoside was isolated from Clerodendrum. Root bark gives glycosidic material, phenolic in nature. D-mannitol was isolated from the root cortex with a yield of 10.9%. The powdery stem contains D-mannitol, α-D-glucoside β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol and cetyl alcohol. From the bark, the sapogenin mixture contains three main triterpenoid components – olconic acid, ketratanoic acid and serratagenic acid.

Clerodendrum serratum is used to treat, control, prevent, and improve the following diseases, conditions, and symptoms:

  • pain;
  • inflammation;
  • rheumatism;
  • respiratory distress;
  • fever;
  • malaria;
  • allergy;
  • oxidative stress;
  • cancer;
  • hepatotoxicity.

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