Real pistachio (lat. Pistácia integerrima) is a small genus of evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs of the Sumacov family (Anacardiaceae), common in subtropical, partially tropical regions of the Old and New Worlds.
The real pistachio is a dioecious deciduous tree with a grayish bark. The trunk is curved, usually tilted and ribbed. The crown is low, dense, the bark is gray-brown, with deep cracks.
The roots go 10-12 m deep, extend 20-25 m in breadth.
Leaves are alternate, unpaired pinnate, usually triple, with three, less often with one, five or seven leaves. Leaflets are almost sessile, leathery, dense, smooth, light green, glabrous above, glistening, dull from below, finely pubescent or almost glabrous, widely elliptical or rounded ovoid, rarely broadly lanceolate, 5-11 (up to 20) cm long, 5-6 (wide) up to 12) see. Petiole finely pubescent or almost naked, not winged. On the leaves, galls (buzuncha) often develop.
Dioecious plant. Male flowers in complex wide panicles up to 6 cm long, and female flowers in more loose and longer inflorescences. Yellowish same-sex flowers are collected in axillary panicles. Stamen flowers in thick, complex, fairly wide panicles, 4-6 cm long; perianth of three to five oblong, membranous, unequal leaves 2-2.5 mm long; stamens 5-6, almost sessile, with anthers 2-3 mm long. Pistillate flowers in rarer and narrower panicles are about the same length as the stamens; perianth of three to five (up to nine) oblong, unequal, slightly wider than stamen flowers, leaves 2-4 mm long.
Fruits are large drupes, from almost linear lanceolate, narrowly or widely ovate to almost round, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.6-0.8 cm wide, almost round or irregularly oval in cross section. Pericarp is easily separated (when ripe), cream, yellow-cream, pink, reddish, dark red or dark purple; the intraocular (bone) is almost always with an oblique base, on the one hand it is usually bluntly keeled. The seed kernels are greenish, edible, oily.
It blooms in March – April. The fruits ripen in September – November. Fruits better at summer temperatures above 30 ° C.
Natural pistachio grows in natural conditions along the slopes of the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), in the north-east of Iran, in Syria and in the north of Afghanistan. Successfully bred in many countries with similar climatic conditions.
Real pistachio grows on fine-grained, stony and rocky slopes in the foothills and low mountains (altitudes from 700-800 to 1500-1700 m above sea level), mainly in the zone of ephemeroid meadows. Sometimes the plant can be found on the southern slopes in the belt of woody-shrubby vegetation.
Undeniably, the amino acid composition of pistachios is unique: tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cystine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, arginine, histidine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine.
A real pistachio serves as a source for obtaining galls (buzgunchi), which develop on leaves when their aphids are damaged. Galls are harvested in August. They contain up to 50% tannin, and medical tannin can be produced from them. In addition, trunks are rich in terpenoids, tar, leaves – in carbohydrates, tannins, and flavonoids. Fruits contain carbohydrates, organic and fatty acids, fatty oil; seeds – terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, fatty oil, higher fatty acids.
Pistachio is valued primarily as a food product rich in high-quality, non-drying oil. The high content of unsaturated acids makes pistachio a real valuable product to strengthen the body, restore it after illness.
Pistachio fruits with moderate use have a beneficial effect on the functioning of the heart, liver, brain, regulate blood sugar.
Pistachios, the composition of which is rich in nutrients, can improve mood, relieve fatigue, and reduce stress.
The properties of pistachios to eliminate pain from hepatic and gastric colic have been known since antiquity, the fruits of this plant are widely used in folk medicine. Pistachios are also used for anemia, as an antiemetic, antitussive and anti-tuberculosis drug. It is believed that these nuts improve heart function. Recommended pistachios for men. Their caloric content and a large amount of fatty acids in the composition contribute to the production of sperm. Gauls are used in folk medicine as an astringent.