Damask rose (Latin: Rósa damascena) – perennial shrub; view of the Gallicanae section of the Rosehip family of the Pink family (lat. Rosaceae). Since ancient times grown in the Middle East. It was imported to Europe from Syria in 1875.
Damask rose is a perennial branchy shrub up to 1.5 m in height.
Thickened stems, branches with spikes of various types:
- a) strong, slightly flattened, hook-curved, usually reddish and
- b) bristle-like spines, occasionally scattered on flower-bearing shoots.
The leaves are large, 12-15 cm long. Stipules are clearly glandular-ciliated, 3-3.5 mm wide. The main shaft is abundantly dotted with short hairs. Leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, crustacean, usually bare above with single hairs, shiny, less often opaque, pubescent along the entire surface.
Inflorescences are semi-umbrella or multi-flowered panicled.
The flowers are large, 6-7 cm in diameter. Pedicels are glandular-bristly, 2.5-3 cm long. Sepals with small pinnate appendages, after flowering, are spaced apart or raised upwards. Petals from pale pink to pink.
The fruits are pear-shaped, red, usually smooth.
Blooming once in June – July.
In medicine, mainly rose petals are used.
Petals contain rose essential oil (0.02-0.04%), which includes the main components of rose oil: geraniol C10H18O (50-60%), citronellol C10H18O (up to 22.6%), phenylethyl alcohol C8H10O (about 2 %), eugenol, citral, nonyl, cinnamon and other aldehydes, as well as hydrocarbon stearoptens, carotenoid rubixanthin С40Н56О.
Damask rose essential oil is a complex mixture consisting of the solid part – stearoptenes (paraffin compounds) and the fat part. At 21–25 ° C, the essential oil has the consistency of a rich almond oil with a strong odor and a pungent taste.
The content of stearoptenes in some cases reaches 50%. The liquid part of the essential oil has a light yellow or greenish yellow color. The composition of the essential oil depends to a large extent on the place where the species grows and how it is isolated.
In the rose petals are anthocyanins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins and fatty oil. The composition of fatty oils includes esters of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic and peanut acids.
For treatment, rose petals and rose essential oil are used.
It has been established that rose oil inhibits the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, which manifests itself in the form of a decrease in intestinal tone and a decrease in peristalsis. This effect is attributed to the geraniol included in the oil.
It was also found that rose oil, along with rosemary oil, promotes the production and separation of bile, which makes it possible to use them to treat cholecystitis and other diseases of the liver and gall bladder.
Rose petals were used in folk medicine as a weakly binding, enveloping, antidiarrheal and antitussive agent. Rose oil is used externally for allergies, as well as for the preparation of rose water, occasionally used as a lotion for the eyes with eyelid inflammation, for applications and rubbing in cosmetics.
It is part of Sobereks ultra.